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Slides and handouts serve different purposes—slides show the big picture while handouts complement slides with details.


Slides are usually distributed at the beginning of the presentation for a large audience. For the smaller audience at a meeting, you can stop your talk on occasion to distribute the handout for effective delivery.


Your audience can analyze the handout after your presentation.

english on top of J_ページ_1.jpg

Avoid this layout

Placing the English text on top of the Japanese text makes a handout look ugly and difficult to read.


This format is used only by someone who wants to compare two languages.

Instead, prepare English and Japanese versions separately.

E and J side by side_ページ_1.jpg

Also, avoid this layout

This is another layout that is no longer used by business people—placing English and Japanese text side-by-side.


Some government agencies are required to present this way, but you don't have to.


Include more details

There are good reasons for adding more details such as the following:

  • Even if you speak in English too fast for them, they can catch up by looking at the handout

  • It is a standard practice in Japan - if you don’t have something in writing, they assume it is not important.

  • Japanese are risk-averse—they want to be better informed than to be sorry.

  • Japanese are detail-oriented.

  • Once the meeting is over, they can have some written materials to make collective decisions with their peers and superiors.

  • You can give the handout to the interpreters before the meeting to make sure they'll use accurate terminology in case you're using interpreters. 

  • Simultaneous interpreters can convert 80% or less of what you say given the time constraint. Any missing points can be covered by your handout. 

Cost of translation


Translation cost depends on the amount of text, the difficulty of the content, and the number of graphs and tables.

Typical charges are around USD 0.20 per English word.

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